Centicol A10 - Gotu kola [Centella asiatica] leaf 10% asiaticosides [HPLC] powder extract
- Centicol; Gotu kola; Centella asiatica; asiaticosides
- CAS Number: 84696-21-9
- EC Number: 283-640-5
Centicol Key Facts
- Centicol represents a range of premium Centella asiatica (Gotu kola) leaf extract standardised to asiaticosides and Saponins
BackgroundCentella asiatica (Gotu kola) is a perennial herbaceous creeper belonging to the Apiceae family. It mostly grows in swampy areas in parts of India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, and South Africa and South pacific and Eastern Europe (Gohil et al., 2010). Centella asiatica has a steep history of use in Ayurvedic medicine to enhance memory and treat neurological diseases as well as use in other traditional medicines to treat wounds, skin diseases and ailments such as vomiting or diarrhoea (Razali et al., 2019). The nutritional and medicinal values of Centella are mainly attributed to the triterpene, Asiaticoside (Hashim et al., 2011).
At present, we have the following variants of Centicol
Centicol A10 - Gotu kola [Centella asiatica] leaf 10% asiaticosides [HPLC] powder extract
Centicol A20 - Gotu kola [Centella asiatica] leaf 20% asiaticosides [HPLC] powder extract
Centicol P40 - Centella asiatica leaf 40% saponins [gravimetry] powder extract
ChemistryThe major active constituents of Centella asiatica are the triterpenes, namely Madecassic acid and its glycoside Madecassoside and, Asiatic acid and its glycoside Asiaticoside. Madecassic and Asiaticoside also both fall under the category of saponins. As well as these, Centella contains flavonoids, phytosterol, gulonic acid, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acid (Razali et al., 2019).
Brief Identification of the main saponins
AsiaticosideCAS – 16830-15-2
Chemical Formula – C48H78O19
Molecular Weight – 959.1 g/mol
IUPAC – [6-[[3,4-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-5-(3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-methyloxan-2-yl)oxyoxan-2-yl]oxymethyl]-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxan-2-yl] 10,11-dihydroxy-9-(hydroxymethyl)-1,2,6a,6b,9,12a-hexamethyl-2,3,4,5,6,6a,7,8,8a,10,11,12,13,14b-tetradecahydro-1H-picene-4a-carboxylate
MadecassosideCAS – 34540-22-2
Chemical Formula – C48H78O20
Molecular Weight – 975.1 g/mol
IUPAC – [6-[[3,4-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-5-(3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-methyloxan-2-yl)oxyoxan-2-yl]oxymethyl]-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxan-2-yl] 8,10,11-trihydroxy-9-(hydroxymethyl)-1,2,6a,6b,9,12a-hexamethyl-2,3,4,5,6,6a,7,8,8a,10,11,12,13,14b-tetradecahydro-1H-picene-4a-carboxylate
Centella Asiatica and Health
Brain HealthCentella appears to have a beneficial effect on both Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s Disease (Song et al., 2018; Nataraj et al., 2017). The development of these diseases is linked to neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and dysfunction in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Sun et al., 2020). Research has found that Centella can increase the activities of the enzyme’s superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase which can act as free radical scavengers and therefore alleviate the symptoms of the diseases (Gray et al., 2017, Chintapanti et al., 2018; Welbat et al., 2018). Centella has also been found to reduce reactive oxygen species production, consequently restoring mitochondrial dysfunction and ultimately restoring neuronal function in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease (Sun et al., 2020). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is closely related to neuron maintenance, neuron survival and neurotransmitter regulation (Sun et al., 2020). Centella and more specifically Asiaticoside may potentially increase the content of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Gopi and Arambakkam Janardhanam, 2017; Nataraj et al., 2017; Chintapanti et al., 2018; Boondam et al., 2019).
Mental WellbeingThe triterpenes present in Centella may potentially reduce corticosterone levels in the brain and increase levels of 5-hydroxytryptophan, norepinephrine, dopamine and their metabolites, therefore potentially enhancing the function of Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increasing the contents of monoamine neurotransmitters, resulting in an antidepressant effect (Chen et al., 2005; Gohil et al., 2010).
As Centella appears to induce these chemical changes in the brain, it has also been found that regular Centella consumption can reduced stress, attenuate anxiety and enhance attention in individuals without any side effects like vertigo, nausea, and dizziness or mental weakness (Chen et al., 2005; Jane et al., 2010).
Cardiovascular DiseasesCentella has shown positive effects on cardiovascular diseases. Asiaticoside was found to reduce mean pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy. As well as this, Asiaticoside can also cause an increase in nitric oxide production, improving blood flow (Wang et al., 2015).
Atherosclerosis is the name given to the disease that results in the inside of arteries narrowing due to the build-up of plaque, and it can lead to some serious problems such as heart attack, stroke, or even death. The maintenance of arterial integrity, retaining endothelial barrier function and normal contraction of smooth muscle can all limit the development of atherosclerotic disease (Döring et al., 2017). Asiaticoside has been found to reduce endothelial permeability; it can effectively protect the occurrence of atherosclerosis by lowering the levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin. Moreover, it can also reduce the levels of related inflammation factor (IL-18) and has antiinflammation effects (Fong et al., 2015; Jing et al., 2018).
Chronic venous insufficiencyChronic venous insufficiency is a circulatory disorder that results in varicose veins and venous ulcers due to abnormalities of the venous wall and valves (Kurz et al., 1999). Hyaluronidase is an enzyme that degrades hyaluronic acid in capillaries and elastase is an enzyme that degrades numerous targets in the extracellular matrix (elastin, collagen, proteoglycans, fibronectin) and it is thought that the overactivity of these enzymes can augment plasma leakage through the endothelial wall, resulting in oedema (Facino et al., 1995). Centella and its saponins are known to inhibit both hyaluronidase and elastase and therefore can be useful in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency (Nema et al., 2013).
CosmeticsIt is due to Centella’s potential effects on the skin that it is often included in cosmetic products. As well as this, it can be used in hair care products as it may stimulate peripheral circulation of the scalp, promote a healthy scalp condition and aid the prevention of hair loss (Chandrika et al., 2015). Asiaticoside possesses inhibitory potential against elastase, hyaluronidase (both involved in loss of skin elasticity with sun exposure) and MMP-1 (involved in wrinkle formation) and therefore it may have potential as a topical agent against skin aging (Nema et al., 2013). Centella also appears to suppress pro-apoptotic changes in mRNA that occur following UVB exposure, potentially reducing the damaging effects of sun exposure (An et al., 2012).
Wound HealingCentella asiatica extracts have been used traditionally for wound healing and recently research has shown support for this use (Gohil et al., 2010). It has been found that the topical use of Centella asiatica extracts can potentially result in increased cell proliferation and collagen synthesis (Sunilkumar et al., 1998). Asiaticoside has been reported to increase collagen formation as well as angiogenesis, therefore aiding wound healing (Rosen et al., 1967; Incandela et al., 2001). Centella is also believed to have a positive effect on keratinization, aiding the thickening of skin in areas of infection (Gohil et al., 2010). Topical Centella application may improve the capillary permeability and also inhibit the inflammatory process which can cause hypertrophy in scars (Rosen et al., 1967; Incandela et al., 2001). Due to its mechanisms of action, Centella may also be useful for reducing the appearance of stretch marks (Bylka et al., 2013).
- An, I., An, S., Kang, S., Choe, T., Lee, S., Jang, H. and Bae, S., 2012. Titrated extract of Centella asiatica provides a UVB protective effect by altering microRNA expression profiles in human dermal fibroblasts. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 30(5), pp.1194-1202.
- Boondam, Y., Songvut, P., Tantisira, M., Tapechum, S., Tilokskulchai, K. and Pakaprot, N., 2019. Inverted U-shaped response of a standardized extract of Centella asiatica (ECa 233) on memory enhancement. Scientific Reports, 9(1).
- Bylka, W., Znajdek-Awiżeń, P., Studzińska-Sroka, E. and Brzezińska, M., 2013. Centella asiatica in cosmetology. Advances in Dermatology and Allergology, 1, pp.46-49.
- Chandrika, U. and Prasad Kumara, P., 2015. Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica). Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, pp.125-157.
- Chen, Y., Han, T., Rui, Y., Yin, M., Qin, L. and Zheng, H., 2005. Effects of total triterpenes of Centella asiatica on the corticosterone levels in serum and contents of monoamine in depression rat brain. Zhong Yao Cai ., 26(8), pp.492-496.
- Chintapanti, S., Pratap Reddy, K. and Sreenivasula Reddy, P., 2018. Behavioral and neurochemical consequences of perinatal exposure to lead in adult male Wistar rats: protective effect by Centella asiatica. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(13), pp.13173-13185.
- Döring, Y., Soehnlein, O. and Weber, C., 2017. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Atherosclerosis and Atherothrombosis. Circulation Research, 120(4), pp.736-743.
- Facino, R., Carini, M., Stefani, R., Aldini, G. and Saibene, L., 1995. Anti-Elastase and Anti-Hyaluronidase Activities of Saponins and Sapogenins fromHedera helix, Aesculus hippocastanum, andRuscus aculeatus: Factors Contributing to their Efficacy in the Treatment of Venous Insufficiency. Archiv der Pharmazie, 328(10), pp.720-724.
- Fong, L., Ng, C., Zakaria, Z., Baharuldin, M., Arifah, A., Hakim, M. and Zuraini, A., 2015. Asiaticoside Inhibits TNF-α-Induced Endothelial Hyperpermeability of Human Aortic Endothelial Cells. Phytotherapy Research, 29(10), pp.1501-1508.
- Gohil, K., Patel, J. and Gajjar, A., 2010. Pharmacological review on Centella asiatica: A potential herbal cure-all. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 72(5), p.546.
- Gopi, M. and Arambakkam Janardhanam, V., 2017. Asiaticoside: Attenuation of rotenone induced oxidative burden in a rat model of hemiparkinsonism by maintaining the phosphoinositide-mediated synaptic integrity. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 155, pp.1-15.
- Gray, N., Zweig, J., Matthews, D., Caruso, M., Quinn, J. and Soumyanath, A., 2017. Centella asiatica Attenuates Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Aβ-Exposed Hippocampal Neurons. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2017, pp.1-8.
- Hashim, P., Sidek, H., Helan, M., Sabery, A., Palanisamy, U. and Ilham, M., 2011. Triterpene Composition and Bioactivities of Centella asiatica. Molecules, 16(2), pp.1310-1322.
- Incandela, L., Cesarone, M., Cacchio, M., De Sanctis, M., Santavenere, C., D'Auro, M., Bucci, M. and Belcaro, G., 2001. Total Triterpenic Fraction of Centella asiatica in Chronic Venous Insufficiency and in High-Perfusion Microangiopathy. Angiology, 52(2_suppl), pp.S9-S13.
- Jing, L., Haitao, W., Qiong, W., Fu, Z., Nan, Z. and Xuezheng, Z., 2018. Anti inflammatory effect of asiaticoside on human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced by ox-LDL. Cytotechnology, 70(2), pp.855-864.
- Kurz, X., Kahn, S., Abenhaim, L., Clement, D., Norgren, L., Baccaglini, U., Berard, A., Cooke, J., Cornu-Thenard, A., Depairon, M., Dormandy, J., Durand-Zaleski, I., Fowkes, G., Lamping, D., Partsch, H., Scurr, J. and Zuccarelli, F., 1999. Chronic venous disorders of the leg: epidemiology, outcomes, diagnosis and management. Summary of an evidence-based report of the VEINES task force. Venous Insufficiency Epidemiologic and Economic Studies. Int Angiol, 18(2), pp.83-102.
- Nataraj, J., Manivasagam, T., Justin Thenmozhi, A. and Essa, M., 2017. Neurotrophic Effect of Asiatic acid, a Triterpene of Centella asiatica Against Chronic 1-Methyl 4-Phenyl 1, 2, 3, 6-Tetrahydropyridine Hydrochloride/Probenecid Mouse Model of Parkinson’s disease: The Role of MAPK, PI3K-Akt-GSK3β and mTOR Signalling Pathways. Neurochemical Research, 42(5), pp.1354-1365.
- Nema, N., Maity, N., Sarkar, B. and Mukherjee, P., 2013. Matrix metalloproteinase, hyaluronidase and elastase inhibitory potential of standardized extract ofCentella asiatica. Pharmaceutical Biology, 51(9), pp.1182-1187.
- Razali, N., Ng, C. and Fong, L., 2019. Cardiovascular Protective Effects of Centella asiatica and Its Triterpenes: A Review. Planta Medica, 85(16), pp.1203-1215.
- Rosen, H., Blumenthal, A. and McCallum, J., 1967. Effect of Asiaticoside on Wound Healing in the Rat. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 125(1), pp.279-280.
- Song, D., Jiang, X., Liu, Y., Sun, Y., Cao, S. and Zhang, Z., 2018. Asiaticoside Attenuates Cell Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis Induced by Aβ1-42 via Inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB Signaling Pathway in Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 9.
- Sun, B., Wu, L., Wu, Y., Zhang, C., Qin, L., Hayashi, M., Kudo, M., Gao, M. and Liu, T., 2020. Therapeutic Potential of Centella asiatica and Its Triterpenes: A Review. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 11.
- Sunilkumar, Parameshwaraiah, S. and Shivakumar, H., 1998. Evaluation of topical formulations of aqueous extract of Centella asiatica on open wounds in rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 36(6), pp.569-572.
- Wang, X., Wang, W., Zhu, X., Ye, W., Cai, H., Wu, P., Huang, X. and Wang, L., 2015. The potential of asiaticoside for TGF-β1/Smad signaling inhibition in prevention and progression of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Life Sciences, 137, pp.56-64.
- Welbat, J., Chaisawang, P., Pannangrong, W. and Wigmore, P., 2018. Neuroprotective Properties of Asiatic Acid against 5-Fluorouracil Chemotherapy in the Hippocampus in an Adult Rat Model. Nutrients, 10(8), p.1053.
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