CrPIX - Chromium picolinate powder
- CrPic; Cr(pic)3; chromium tripicolinate; chromium (III) trispicolinate
- CAS Number: 14639-25-9
- EC Number: 604-524-6
- Chemical Formula: C18H12CrN3O6
- Molecular Weight: 418.30 g/mol
- CrPix is a premium quality USP grade chromium picolinate product.
- CrPix is manufactured to carefully deliver trace amounts of chromium in nutritional supplements.
BackgroundChromium (Cr) is an essential trace element. However, this essential status of Cr has been questioned in recent years (Di Bona et al., 2011). Despite this, there is no doubt about the importance of Cr, with it playing a role in insulin sensitivity and diabetes, and deficiency of the element being associated with numerous negative health effects (Vincent, 2000; Lukaski, 1999).
While deficiency is rare, it can be difficult to consume adequate Cr due to its absorption, which is low, ranging from about 0.4 to 2.5% (Anderson & Kozlovsky, 1985). The absorption is influenced by numerous factors such as the presence of amino acids, minerals such as zinc, and certain organic acids, amongst others. CrPIX is chromium in the form of chromium picolinate, a trivalent form of chromium, thought to be the most stable and most biologically active (Lukaski, 1999). It is found in moderate amounts in a wide range of foods, including meats, grain products, fruits, vegetables, nuts, spices, brewer’s yeast, beer, and wine. Although rare, Cr deficiency has been noted in some global regions as a result of low soil Cr levels and low intake of dietary sources, which has been linked to impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. There is a large interest in the supplementation of Cr due to the negative effects associated with deficiency as well as the fact that it is poorly absorbed in the diet.
ChemistryChromium picolinate consists of chromium attached to three molecules of picolinic acid. Chromium picolinate also appears to be the most bioavailable of the existing commercial chromium forms. At a dose of 1000 μg / day, absorption of chromium from chromium chloride (CrCl3) is only 0.4 %, whereas chromium picolinate may have as high as 2.8%.
CAS – 14639-25-9
Chemical Formula – C18H12CrN3O6
Molecular Weight – 418.3 g/mol
IUPAC – chromium(3+);pyridine-2-carboxylate
Chromium Picolinate and HealthThe mechanism behind the biological function of Cr is not clearly understood. It is proposed that Cr plays an important role in the metabolism of thyroid in humans. Binding of Cr (III) with nucleic acids has been found to stimulate the DNA-dependant RNA synthesis. It has also been postulated that Cr (III) may also enhance insulin binding, increases number of insulin receptors and/or improve insulin internalization to metabolize carbohydrates, fats and proteins. According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) claim, trivalent Cr contributes to normal macronutrient metabolism in humans. Furthermore, the US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a qualified health claim on the essential role of chromium picolinate supplementation in supporting efficient insulin function and blood glucose control, thus reduces the risk of diabetes.
Type 2 Diabetes and Blood SugarResearchers have studied the effects of Cr supplements on type 2 diabetes and blood sugar control for many years. There is an abundance of evidence to support the use of Cr to improve blood sugar in those with diabetes (Pei et al., 2006; Suksomboon et al., 2014). While it is clear that Cr is essential for the normal metabolism of carbohydrates, the use of Cr to improve insulin sensitivity and blood glucose levels is certainly more effective in individuals with impaired insulin sensitivity and glycaemic control (Wang & Cefalu, 2010; Cefalu et al., 2010). The improvements are seen due to an increase in insulin action rather than stimulation of insulin secretion. Cr has also shown to promote blood glucose disposal and therefore aid in the regulation of normal blood glucose levels (Frauchiger et al., 2004).
Weight ReductionIt is widely stated throughout research that in order to lose weight, individuals must be consuming less calories than they utilise (Howell & Kones, 2017). This is often easier said than done, many weight loss supplements therefore look to target either one of these factors by increasing calorie expenditure or decreasing calorie consumption. Cr supplementation appears to do the latter, with research finding that the supplementation of chromium picolinate can reduce food intake, hunger and cravings, aiding weight loss (Anton et al., 2008).
Heart healthCr has been found to benefit the heart and vascular system in two ways. Supplementation has shown to reduce blood lipid concentrations (Tian et al., 2013), as well as demonstrating an ability to significantly decrease blood pressure (Lari et al., 2021).
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)PCOS is associated with insulin resistance due to high androgen levels in women. Chromium picolinate supplementation has shown to improve plasma insulin levels, insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles in women with PCOS (Lydic et al., 2006). As well as this chromium picolinate supplementation has been found to reduce other symptoms of PCOS such as reduced acne, hirsutism, and C-reactive protein and improved plasma total antioxidant capacity (Jamilian et al., 2016).
Exercise nutritionDue to Cr’s ability to improve insulin sensitivity and blood glucose disposal, it is often included in sports supplements. Cr is often used by bodybuilders and gym goers, due to the ingestion of high carbohydrate meals often required to build muscle, Cr-containing supplements may help aid the delivery of glucose into the muscle as well as helping to maintain insulin sensitivity (Roginski & Mertz, 1997; Wang & Cefalu, 2010; Frauchiger et al., 2004).
- Anderson, R. and Kozlovsky, A., 1985. Chromium intake, absorption and excretion of subjects consuming self-selected diets. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 41(6), pp.1177-1183.
- Anton, S., Morrison, C., Cefalu, W., Martin, C., Coulon, S., Geiselman, P., Han, H., White, C. and Williamson, D., 2008. Effects of Chromium Picolinate on Food Intake and Satiety. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, 10(5), pp.405-412.
- Cefalu, W., Rood, J., Pinsonat, P., Qin, J., Sereda, O., Levitan, L., Anderson, R., Zhang, X., Martin, J., Martin, C., Wang, Z. and Newcomer, B., 2010. Characterization of the metabolic and physiologic response to chromium supplementation in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism, 59(5), pp.755-762.
- Frauchiger, M., Wenk, C. and Colombani, P., 2004. Effects of Acute Chromium Supplementation on Postprandial Metabolism in Healthy Young Men. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 23(4), pp.351-357.
- Howell, S. and Kones, R., 2017. “Calories in, calories out” and macronutrient intake: the hope, hype, and science of calories. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 313(5), pp.E608-E612.
- Jamilian, M., Bahmani, F., Siavashani, M., Mazloomi, M., Asemi, Z. and Esmaillzadeh, A., 2015. The Effects of Chromium Supplementation on Endocrine Profiles, Biomarkers of Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Biological Trace Element Research, 172(1), pp.72-78.
- Lari, A., Fatahi, S., Sohouli, M. and Shidfar, F., 2021. The Impact of Chromium Supplementation on Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Dose–Response Meta‑Analysis of Randomized‑Controlled Trials. High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention, 28(4), pp.333-342.
- Lukaski, H., 1999. CHROMIUM AS A SUPPLEMENT. Annual Review of Nutrition, 19(1), pp.279-302. Lydic, M., McNurlan, M., Bembo, S., Mitchell, L., Komaroff, E. and Gelato, M., 2006. Chromium picolinate improves insulin sensitivity in obese subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertility and Sterility, 86(1), pp.243-246.
- Pei, D., Hsieh, C., Hung, Y., Li, J., Lee, C. and Kuo, S., 2006. The influence of chromium chloride–containing milk to glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Metabolism, 55(7), pp.923-927.
- Roginski, E. and Mertz, W., 1969. Effects of Chromium(III) Supplementation on Glucose and Amino Acid Metabolism in Rats Fed a Low Protein Diet. The Journal of Nutrition, 97(4), pp.525-530.
- Suksomboon, N., Poolsup, N. and Yuwanakorn, A., 2014. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of chromium supplementation in diabetes. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 39(3), pp.292-306.
- Tian, H., Guo, X., Wang, X., He, Z., Sun, R., Ge, S. and Zhang, Z., 2013. Chromium picolinate supplementation for overweight or obese adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews,.
- Vincent, J., 2000. The Biochemistry of Chromium. The Journal of Nutrition, 130(4), pp.715-718.
- Wang, Z. and Cefalu, W., 2010. Current Concepts About Chromium Supplementation in Type 2 Diabetes and Insulin Resistance. Current Diabetes Reports, 10(2), pp.145-151.
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