Oxystorm - Red Spinach [Amaranthus hypochondriacus] leaf 9% Nitrates [HPLC] powder extract
- Amaranthus hypochondriacus leaf extract, Red Spinach extract
- CAS Number: 90320-45-9
- EC Number: 291-071-9
BackgroundOxystorm, also known as red spinach extract, it is produced from the leafy vegetable Amaranthus dubius which is popularly grown in tropical regions such as Africa, India, Sri Lanka and the Caribbean. It is a one-of-a-kind natural and sustainable extract that has been standardised to 9% nitrate. The leaves and grains of amaranth are edible and contain large amounts of nitrate (Subramanian and Gupta, 2016).
Oxystorm is available as a powder and is completely water soluble, sugar free with a neutral PH and negligible levels of oxalate. Oxalates bind to minerals, preventing the body from absorbing essential nutrients. When the levels of oxalate in the body are high, there is a greater chance that they will bind to calcium and form kidney stones. (Contributors, n.d.).
The benefits of increased nitric oxide levels in the bloodstream are widely recognized. Multiple studies have shown that dietary supplementation with inorganic nitrates abundant in leafy vegetables like red spinach, can boost nitric oxide levels. When compared to other nitrate sources such as beetroot extracts and concentrations, they typically only contain around 2% to 3% nitrate. Oxystorm contains a higher concentration of nitrates as well as bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, potassium, iron, calcium, antioxidants and polyphenols (Gonzalez et al., 2019).
Due to its various health properties, red spinach extract has continued to gain popularity in the global market. Various clinical and research studies have found a wide range of health benefits from red-spinach-based products, with more recent studies emphasizing its ability to reduce blood pressure and enhance physical performance.
The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathwayAs we chew red spinach, it releases nitrate in the saliva. It is transported into the salivary glands and secreted into the oral cavity. This is swallowed and absorbed in the small intestine. This enterosalivary circulation supplies nitrate to the oral microbiota which uses nitrogen to produce ATP while reducing nitrate to nitrite. Once swallowed, nitrite is reduced to nitric oxide in the stomach (Rocha, 2021). Nitric oxide is an essential physiological signalling molecule produced within the body ensuring physiological functions such as vasodilation, regulation of blood flow, muscle contractility and glucose and calcium homeostasis.
Health BenefitsRed spinach is a major source of nitrate, and the consumption of dietary nitrate is recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO) to prevent major cardiovascular health issues.
Boosting the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway is shown to improve gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, metabolic and cognitive performance. It has also been shown to improve several physiological functions in the elderly that typically decline with age (Rocha, 2021)
Numerous studies have also found it to be effective in improving exercise performance, lowering blood pressure, regulating blood flow, improving blood circulation, and increasing exercise tolerance. Study findings showcased an increase in plasma nitrate and nitrite in approximately 30 minutes after consuming a meal containing nitrate, remaining high for 5-6 hours due to the enterosalivary circulation of nitrate. (Lundberg and Govoni, 2004).
Physical PerformanceRed spinach extract has historically been used for a variety of reasons which has sparked more research into whether it can enhance physical performance. An interesting study found that a single oral dose of red spinach extract could increase nitric oxide levels in the body for at least 8 hours (Subramanian and Gupta, 2016).
A separate study showed how the ingestion of red spinach increased VO2 production (oxygen consumption) and enhanced peak blood flow to the lower limbs, resulting in efficient energy production and enhanced exercise performance (Gonzalez et al., 2019). Acute intake of 1000 mg of red spinach extract was likewise found to significantly raise plasma nitrate (Moore et al., 2017). This high concentration of nitrates in Oxystorm, which results in the production of nitric oxide, is beneficial for people who engage in strenuous physical activity as it can greatly enhance overall performance and exercise tolerance.
Women’s HealthIn recreationally active women, red spinach extract was demonstrated to significantly improve cycling power, speed, and time trial performance. Adults were given 1 gram of red spinach extract every hour for 7 days, with one dose an hour before a 4 km cycling trial. The findings revealed that red spinach significantly increased overall exercise performance in women (Gonzalez et al., 2019).
Healthy AgeingThere have been numerous studies conducted focussing on the anti-ageing properties of nitrate supplementation. Cardiovascular dysfunction, neurological deficiencies and metabolic impairment are the leading causes of morbidity and death in the elderly today (Rocha, 2022).
Nitrate supplementation such as Oxystorm is becoming more popular as a nutritional approach and may assist in improving functional abilities (Rocha, 2022). Since nitric oxide levels decline as we age, individual lifestyles and diet are believed to have an influence on the decline. Nitric Oxide (NO) is essential for maintaining normal blood pressure, preventing adhesion of blood cells to the endothelium and preventing platelet aggregation, enforcing that a healthy diet with the right supplementation packed with nitrates may help in slowing the ageing process down (Torregrossa, Aranke & Bryan, 2011).
Another study linked endothelial dysfunction and disorders related to ageing with nitric oxide production, showing that red spinach extract can also be beneficial for the elderly. (Subramanian and Gupta, 2016)
Cardiovascular System and Blood PressureResearch has shown that an increase in nitric oxide bioavailability may promote vasodilation, reduce blood pressure and increase blood flow (Gonzalez et al., 2019). Dietary nitrate has also been closely linked to improved cardiovascular health. (Bryan et al., 2007; Borlaug et al., 2015; Kapil et al., 2015; Hezel et al., 2016). This has resulted in dietary nitrate and nitrate supplements being studied as a therapeutic method in lowering cardiovascular mortality and morbidity (Rocha,2021).
Red spinach is a beneficial supplement in preventing cardiovascular disease in cases of endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular disease and it is essential that nitric oxide levels are maintained in order for the cardiovascular system to function properly. Red spinach can considerably boost Nitrate (NO3) levels in plasma within 30 minutes of intake, reaching its peak in 1 hour (Subramanian and Gupta, 2016). A similar study also demonstrated dietary nitrate supplementation to raise plasma nitrite concentrations, reducing resting blood pressure (Jones, 2014).
Nitric oxide causes blood vessels to relax and dilate, resulting in a drop in blood pressure. Stimulating the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway can help to lower arterial blood pressure (Larsen et al., 2006). Additional studies have found that a 10-day nitrate supplementation can increase plasma nitrite while decreasing both systolic and mean arterial pressure in elderly adults (Vanhatalo et al., 2018). It has also shown to significantly lower post-exercise diastolic blood pressure while enhancing power and speed metrics during a 4 km cycling time trial (Gonzalez et al., 2019.).
COMPARISON BETWEEN AMARANTHUS EXTRACT AND BEET ROOT EXTRACT
Oxystorm (Amaranthus Extract)
Beet Root Extract
Soluble in water
Soluble in water
8 to 14%
Not detected [HPLC]
10% to 15% [HPLC]
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