AMYRASE - White kidney [Phaseolus vulgaris] bean 8000 AI units/g powder extract
- AMYRASE; White kidney bean; Phaseolus vulgaris bean
- CAS Number: 93685-37-1
AMYRASE Key Facts
BackgroundPhaseolus vulgaris is commonly known as the white kidney bean or French bean amongst various other names. It is an herbaceous plant grown worldwide, mainly for its edible dry seed or fresh beans. White kidney beans are commonly consumed for their nutritive value (high protein and fibre content), they have gained popularity in more recent years due to the presence of various functional compounds including polyphenols, resistant starch, oligosaccharides and bioactive peptides. Originating in Central and South America, this crop is now cultivated in many parts of the world.
Phaseolus vulgaris is known as an Alpha-amylase inhibitor and this is why it is commonly used as a supplement with the aim of reducing bodyweight, however, Phaseolus vulgaris is also used in supplements for its protection against various diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, colon cancer and microbial infections (Ganesan & Xu, 2017). The glycoprotein phaseolamin present in Phoseolus vulgaris is the constituent responsible for the inhibition of alpha-amylase (De Gouveia et al., 2014). The AMYRASE range are standardised based on their alpha-amylase inhibitory activity (AI).
At present, we have the following variants of AMYRASEAMYRASE - White kidney [Phaseolus vulgaris] bean 8000 AI units/g powder extract
AMYRASE MAX - White kidney [Phaseolus vulgaris] bean 20000 AI units/g powder extract
Phaseolus Vulgaris and HealthWhite kidney bean extract is known specifically as Alpha-amylase inhibitor isoform 1 (Alpha-AI1), one of the main starch inhibitors. After ingestion, before starches (also known as complex carbohydrates) cross the intestinal wall they must be hydrolysed to their monosaccharide units, generally glucose. By inhibiting Alpha-amylase, Alpha-AI1 prevents starches from being taken up in the small intestine and therefore passing through to the colon (Celleno et al., 2007).
Weight ManagementIn theory, it is due to this interference with the digestion of complex carbohydrates by Phaseolamin, into simple absorbable sugars that it can potentially reduce the amount of carbohydrate derived calories and aid weight loss (Celleno et al., 2007). The reduction of body weight is associated with numerous positive health outcomes for individuals that are above what would be considered their ‘healthy weight’. This can include a reduced risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer, just to name a few. In order for an individual to lose weight, a negative energy balance is essential. It has been found that weight loss is greater in individuals who consume a Phaseolus vulgaris extract with carbohydrate-rich meals than those who do not, most importantly this weight loss appeared to be from the loss of fat and not lean body mass (Celleno et al., 2007). An increase in body weight often occurs concurrently with an unfavourable change in blood lipid profile, with low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and triglyceride levels rising, while high density lipoprotein levels decrease. Phaseolus vulgaris extract consumption has demonstrated to not only cause a decrease in body weight but it may also decrease triglyceride levels (Udani et al., 2004).
Insulin Resistance & DiabetesWhen carbohydrates are consumed, the carbohydrates are broken down into their most basic form – glucose. This glucose then enters our bloodstream, meanwhile our pancreas releases the hormone insulin. The role of insulin is to regulate the movement of this glucose from the bloodstream, into various cells including skeletal muscle cells and fat cells and ultimately help maintain what is considered normal blood glucose levels. The body wants to maintain this level at all times, so when carbohydrates are not being consumed, the liver releases stored glucose into the bloodstream. To maintain these levels however, once carbohydrates are consumed, insulin stops this release from the liver. When individuals develop insulin resistance, as indicated by the name, their body becomes resistant to the actions of insulin. This means that when the body releases insulin in response to carbohydrate consumption, the glucose is not transported out of the bloodstream and at the same time, the liver does not stop releasing the stored glucose. This leads to chronically high blood glucose levels known as hyperglycaemia and can ultimately result in the development of type II diabetes and numerous other serious health issues. It has been found that when individuals with diabetes ingested an alpha amylase inhibitor alongside carbohydrates, the postprandial glucose response was greatly reduced (Layer et al., 1986). This means that there is less of a spike in insulin after eating and normal blood glucose levels are more easily maintained. As well as this, Phasolus vulgaris extract has shown potential to lower basal blood glucose levels (Tormo et al., 2004). The maintenance of normal blood glucose levels both postprandially as well as chronically is paramount in the treatment of diabetes.
DyslipidaemiaIt is common that individuals with high body fat levels also have dyslipidaemia. This is when blood lipid profiles do not match what would be considered healthy, typically an increase in blood triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein levels, and a decrease in high density lipoprotein levels. This increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events such as stroke (Toth, 2016). It has been found that Phaseolus vulgaris can potentially lower blood triglycerides to a similar levels achieved by pharmaceutical drugs (Micheli et al., 2019).
Colon CancerAs the inhibition of Alpha-amylase causes starches to pass through into the colon. Here, they have the potential to be fermented, acting like a probiotic. When fermented, these starches can release short-chain fatty acids such as propionic acid, butyric acid, and acetic acid which could potentially reduce the risk of colon cancer (Hangen & Bennink, 2002).
TrademarkAMYRASE is a trademark of Vita Actives, EU trademark number 013882246.
- Celleno, L., Tolaini, M., D'Amore, A., Perricone, N. and Preuss, H., 2007. A Dietary Supplement Containing Standardized Phaseolus vulgaris Extract Influences Body Composition of Overweight Men and Women. International Journal of Medical Sciences, pp.45-52.
- Ganesan, K. and Xu, B., 2017. Polyphenol-Rich Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Their Health Benefits. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 18(11), p.2331.
- Hangen, L. and Bennink, M., 2002. Consumption of Black Beans and Navy Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Reduced Azoxymethane-Induced Colon Cancer in Rats. Nutrition and Cancer, 44(1), pp.60-65.
- Layer, P., Rizza, R., Zinsmeister, A., Carlson, G. and DiMango, E., 1986. Effect of a Purified Amylase Inhibitor on Carbohydrate Tolerance in Normal Subjects and Patients With Diabetes Mellitus. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 61(6), pp.442-447.
- Micheli, L., Lucarini, E., Trallori, E., Avagliano, C., Caro, C., Russo, R., Calignano, A., Ghelardini, C., Pacini, A. and Di Cesare Mannelli, L., 2019. Phaseolus vulgaris L. Extract: Alpha-Amylase Inhibition against Metabolic Syndrome in Mice. Nutrients, 11(8), p.1778.
- Tormo, M., Gil-Exojo, I., de Tejada, A. and Campillo, J., 2004. Hypoglycaemic and anorexigenic activities of an α-amylase inhibitor from white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Wistar rats. British Journal of Nutrition, 92(5), pp.785-790.
- Toth, P., 2016. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as a causal factor for cardiovascular disease. Vascular Health and Risk Management, p.171.
- Udani, M., Hardy, M. and Madsen, D., 2004. Blocking Carbohydrate Absorption and Weight Loss: A Clinical Trial Using Phase 2 Brand Proprietary Fractionated White Bean Extract. Alternative Medicine Review, 9(1), pp.63-69.
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